Capacitors are an integral part of any uninterruptible power system (UPS). Responsible for smoothing, filtering and storing energy, these UPS components are fundamental to the overall health of your UPS. However, much like batteries, capacitors degrade over time and because of this, represent a common point of failure in uninterruptible power supplies. Understanding the factors that influence the lifespan of AC and DC capacitors, as well as the signs of impending capacitor failure, will go a long way toward ensuring that your UPS systems are optimally performing.
What Is a UPS Capacitor?
UPS capacitors are tasked with helping to adjust voltage fluctuations so they do not adversely impact the equipment connected to the UPS. Designed to store and release electrical energy, capacitors range in size and type, and the number of capacitors inside a UPS varies greatly depending on the kVA rating of the unit. Even the smallest single-phase UPSs have dozens of capacitors, while a 750 kVA three-phase UPS will likely have hundreds.
In UPS systems, AC capacitors form part of the output filters. Their role is to connect to the critical load output, helping to control the waveform of the UPS output voltage and provide reactive power. DC capacitors, on the other hand, comprise part of the rectification system. Their role is to help smooth out voltage fluctuations and deliver short-term energy storage to ensure there is no break in supply to the critical load.
What Is the Lifespan of a UPS Capacitor?
Like batteries, capacitors also have an expected useful life and will require replacing. As the materials within capacitors age and degrade, they lose the ability to effectively perform their job. The electrolyte, paper and aluminum foil inside the capacitor degrades physically and chemically. Several factors can speed up the rate of deterioration but on average, most capacitors need to be replaced every five to eight years. However, their actual lifespan is influenced significantly by environmental circumstances. While a capacitor might be rated by the manufacturer for seven years of round-the-clock operation, it is likely to actually run for a much shorter period if there are unfavorable operating conditions. Conversely, capacitors that receive regular maintenance and operate in ambient conditions could potentially deliver up to 10 years of useful life.
What Factors Affect UPS Capacitor Lifespan?
Similar to UPS batteries, the lifespan of capacitors is reduced by various environmental extremes. All capacitors inside a UPS system are impacted by the potential for high frequency switching, as well as stresses caused by the physical and electrical operating conditions. The three primary factors affecting a capacitor’s useful life are:
- Excessive current: Capacitors can be damaged when they are regularly exposed to steady currents that exceed the manufacturer’s rating. This often occurs in unstable electrical environments. Short periods of high current are usually harmless, as long as the capacitor isn’t forced to overheat in order to compensate.
- Overuse: Not surprisingly, the harder a capacitor has to work in order to do its job, the faster it will deteriorate. The rate of failure will be more rapid in environments in which there are high levels of voltage noise or transients, as these conditions force capacitors to overwork.
- Excess heat: Overheating will eventually cause the solution inside a capacitor to evaporate, causing a buildup of unsafe pressure. It’s important to note that heat not only arises from high temperatures where the UPS is installed, but from inside the capacitor, as well, such as a blocked air filter that results in limited airflow.
Signs of a Failed Capacitor
Unfortunately, sometimes there are no visible signs before a capacitor fails. You may not realize that one has gone down, but when it does, other capacitors are forced to assume the workload, which in turn will shorten their lifespan. However, by scheduling regular preventive maintenance visits from a UPS maintenance provider, the likelihood is much higher of catching an ailing capacitor before it disrupts operations. Service engineers are professionally trained to identify the signs of impending failure, which include:
- Oil leakage ── which increases the temperature and impedance in the capacitor
- Deformation ── which is usually caused by excess heat or internal fluid leaks
- Scorched wires ── often caused by over-current that can be identified during thermal imaging
- Burnt valve cap protrusion ── a clear sign of stress that is often caused when a short circuit in the capacitor leads to a build-up of pressure; this will likely result in failure when the protrusion breaks
- Temperature increase ── When a capacitor’s internal temperature starts to increase, it’s a definitive sign of impending failure
- Capacitance ── as the capacitor ages, it will slowly fall out of tolerance as the internal structure degrades, similar to the process with a battery.
Most often, capacitors will fail in one of three ways. First, in an “open” condition, where they essentially stop working, often with little to no visible evidence of malfunction. Alternatively, a capacitor may suffer a “short” failure, in which there is clear leak of the dielectric medium and the capacitor may even make a popping sound. Third, the capacitor may gradually fail as it falls out of tolerance.
The Risks of Not Replacing a UPS Capacitor
Capacitor failure has a negative impact on the greater UPS system. The consequences of capacitor failure will vary in large part based on where the capacitor is located, the number that are working in tandem or parallel, and the overall health of the UPS’s other capacitors.
If capacitors are operating well below their voltage rating, one or two might be able to take over for a failed capacitor without significantly affecting UPS operation. But in many cases, a capacitor failure will trigger the UPS to switch to bypass mode. When this occurs, the power stream bypasses the UPS’s filtering electronics and although the UPS remains operational, it isn’t protecting downstream equipment.
Furthermore, because the capacitor’s filtering ability will suffer, harmonics and electrical noise will be greater. In addition, energy storage volume decreases and battery strings can be damaged. When capacitors are unable to perform effectively, the operating conditions are impacted, resulting in excessive heat and current.
How to Prevent UPS Battery Capacitor Failure
To maximize the performance and reliability of your UPS system, it is essential to have the capacitors inspected on a regular basis by a professional service technician who has the expertise, training and tools to detect issues before they become expensive problems. For example, service engineers are able to measure changes in tolerance using a capacitance meter, while thermal imaging equipment is capable of detecting even small variations in operating temperature. Using these and other tools, technicians can accurately assess the condition of capacitors and, if needed, perform a full or partial replacement of capacitor banks. In addition, you should proactively plan UPS capacitor replacement near the end of their rated service life.
In addition to regular UPS maintenance and proactive capacitor replacement, you can help avoid capacitor failure by adhering to recommended ambient temperature and humidity levels, as well as keeping air filters clean so air can flow freely and keep the UPS cool.
How to Replace Your UPS Capacitor
If you have a maintenance contract with a preferred UPS service provider, simply request a capacitor replacement proposal and keep it on file. And if you aren’t currently engaging in regular UPS maintenance, it is extremely important to protect your equipment — and your overall organization — with a UPS maintenance contract. You’ll not only receive an update on the overall health of your unit and its capacitors, but when replacement time arrives, you’ll already have an established relationship with a provider you trust and who has worked on your equipment.
When to Replace Your UPS Battery Capacitor
Don’t wait until your capacitors reach the end of their rated service life to start preparing for their replacement. Instead, request replacement quotes from your UPS maintenance provider as they approach their fifth year. This ensures you have one or more proposals on hand when replacement time arrives. It is recommended to schedule a full replacement of capacitors used in the primary power-train portion of the UPS around seven years of operation. However, some newer UPSs may have oil-filled DC capacitors that are rated for the full life of the UPS. At the minimum, an annual inspection will help optimize operations and extend their lifespan. It’s also wise to track UPS preventive maintenance calls and take the time to read service reports closely. If there are any possible impending signs of failure, take steps to replace the capacitors immediately.
Contact Unified Power for UPS Battery Capacitor Replacement
Preventive maintenance has been proven to be among the most successful and cost-effective means of ensuring continuous uptime and the ongoing health of your UPS. Unified Power is a leading, nationwide service provide with a staff of service engineers who are professionally trained on all major manufacturers’ equipment. Our technicians are ready to perform the services you need at your convenience — whether it’s the middle of the night or during regular business hours. In addition to a broad range of UPS maintenance service plans that include capacitor replacement, Unified Power offers generator maintenance, battery preventive maintenance, battery replacements, battery recycling, load bank testing, UPS products for sale, UPS rentals, battery monitoring and other services designed to optimize the performance of critical power equipment.
Page updated on: August 19, 2022